Competency based interviewing Manufacturing, Logistics & Supply Chain

Competency based interviewing.

Personality type, two people


Background and example questions for people interviewing for roles in Manufacturing, Operations, Logistics and Supply Chain.

This white paper is designed to help knowledge workers, professionals & semi-professionals, managers and senior execs CXO level prepare better for interview – this particular article is written to help the candidate approach their interview better informed and more prepared.

Where appropriate, in each occupational discipline, we have included questions for both individual contributors and management questions for individual disciplines.

This white paper specifically addresses the issues of how-to best approach handling competency-based interviews.

Here’s what we’ve got for you:

  • What does competency-based interviewing mean?
  • How to second guess what questions may arise and how to answer them
  • Question bank – Examples of generic and specific questions you may expect
  • Examples of specific questions, appertaining to people interviewing for jobs in Manufacturing, Operations, Logistics and Supply Chain.

What does competency-based interviewing mean?

Competency-based interviews are structured, with the interviewer working from a set of pre-determined questions.

They work on the basis that your past performance is a reliable predictor of the future, so you can expect to be asked a number of questions that will require you to draw on specific aspects of your past performance.

Competency-based interview questions will typically begin:

  • Tell me about a time when?
  • Tell us what approach you took?
  • Describe an occasion when?
  • How did you go about?
  • Give me an example when?

These are often based around core behavioural competencies such as:

Initiative and innovation. Developing others. Delivering results.
Team leading. Interpersonal skills. Learning & self-development.
Communication Planning and organising. Analytical thinking.
Strategic thinking. Building relationships. Teamwork and collaboration.


However, competency-based interview questions are more likely to be put to you in a specific context, determined by the requirements of the job and what is to be accomplished / achieved.


Selecting your next leader

Why is it so important that you understand competency-based interviewing?

Two reasons;

Firstly, HR is increasingly becoming recognised for its contribution to the business – once a discipline which many people saw as taking a back-seat, HR as a function is becoming increasingly valued.

  • Importantly HR professionals becoming increasingly business savvy, better focused on business outcomes and more influential in driving up organizational capability through more robust recruitment and selection tactics and techniques for internal and external resourcing.
  • Best practice in HR, means leveraging a competency-based interview approach; taking a more scientific approach to determining a candidate’s ability to perform in the job and this means looking for previous experience of success (competency).
  • You can expect HR executive to be interested to identify experience which is directly relevant to the specific demands of the job, the goals to be achieved and situation in which it is to be done (business drivers, market conditions / dynamics….).

Second reason; most experienced senior managers or business leaders are either aware of the merits and rationale of competency-based interviewing or are subconsciously aware of it, and therefore will often use competency-based interview questions to assess a candidate’s real ability.

In relation to their questions, the interviewer(s) will analyse your answer around ‘what you did’, in terms of your experience, knowledge and skills applied to the situation that is in question. The question is most likely to be framed in terms of direct relevance to the organization and the job being recruited for, and you should look to answer it in the same terms.

You will demonstrate the extent of your affinity to the organization’s activities. The interviewer, and certainly if they are part of HR, will want to know ‘how you did what you did’. This relates to the behavioural competencies that are relative to the values of the organization. Are you a fit with the desired culture of the organization?


For more senior roles, and particularly jobs that involve people management, apart from the technical skills and general behavioural aspects, management of people is key. However, it is increasingly common for the term leadership to be used, therefore it may help to provide some delineation between the two terms.

Management is seen as the transactional processes by which an organization is steered, and its activities are planned, directed and executed procedurally.

Leadership is considered to be a more transformational activity in which influence is created and used to bring about people performance. So, we can see fundamental differences in approach – authoritarian v. charismatic, short-term objectives v. strategic vision, doing things right v. doing the right things.

Leadership is seen as much more behaviourally driven, an innate characteristic of nature rather than learned, hence it may drive competence interview questioning that has greater focus on emotional intelligence.


Competence questions have their foundation in the premise that how a person behaves in a given situation is characteristic, rather than what they say they would theoretically do in a given situation, which may or may not be the case in the event. At the most senior levels of an organization, the criticality of leadership will feature strongly in the manner of the competence interview questions that you will be asked, as much as your focus on past business performance.

How to second guess what questions may arise.

The keys to unlocking what competency-based interview questions you may face, lie in the following clues and combinations…

Expect questions to be focused on very predictable business-critical goals for which you will be expected to be responsible, and against which your performance will most likely be measured, and by which success or failure will be determined. These are most likely to be industry-sector and job specific. Consider what matters most in the position into which the employer is hiring – the key challenges of the role, the key issues facing the business, its ambitions and objectives. Anticipate what areas you think they are most likely to probe you about. Where does your experience and achievements relate?

You should reflect on what insight you have into the opportunity from any job spec, briefing from a head-hunter, internal recruiter, job advert, inside line from someone in your network, news items or other media items including their website, then try to second guess what questions they are most likely to put to you. Consider sitting in the interviewers’ shoes and think about what questions you might ask if you were on their side of the table.

Factors most likely to influence the shape of the competency-based interview question /s!

Take a broad view of the organization itself – its size and spread geographically, its range of products and services, its operational activities, its recent market performance, emerging issues; something of a SWOT analysis.

What will be the impacts required of the role-holder – critical short-term deliverables, long term ambitions, key areas of influence, in the context of the organization.

Now, look to define the role in terms of the important attributes (experience, knowledge, skills) that will underpin delivery of job performance. You have got to the interview stage so what is it on your CV that will likely have interested them in you.

Okay, now try to prepare and plan for the interview itself. Think about the concepts raised in the above visual and consequently which competency-based questions are they most likely to put to you.

How to answer competency-based interview questions?

Answer competency-based interview questions using the STAR formula!

  • SITUATION – say where you were (employer name), what your role was and when it happened.
  • TASK – outline the challenge or nature of the project for which you were responsible and why it was important in the context of impact on the organization.
  • ACTION – explain how you approached the task and the actions you took. If your efforts were part of a team effort, focus most on what you did, and what you contributed. Avoid saying what you thought you might do – you need to focus on what you have achieved and how you achieved it.
  • RESULT – what were the outcomes? These should be substantiated with facts and figures and should show you in a positive light.

What if you can’t think of a good or recent example?


In this case you may wish to tell the interviewer that you cannot think of a directly comparable situation, but you can think of something similar, and then elaborate on how you might have approached this task if faced with it. The interviewer will normally accept this approach. The length of your answer. Expect sub questions.


Your response to any competency-based question needs to be focused but in dealing with all four points of the STAR technique in sufficient detail, it is not untypical for a response to take around five minutes to explain. If you have not covered aspects that the interviewer is looking for you to cover, they may interject or at the end of your answer give you one or more ‘prompt’ questions but it is also common for an interviewer to give you a series of sub-questions having asked the main question, to give you a steer as to what they are looking for you to cover in your response. In answering competence-based interview questions, the process you apply is important to make sure that you give the best answers you can.


Having been asked the question, give yourself some thinking time so that you identify a particularly relevant scenario for your response and to prepare and frame your response so that it is comprehensive yet focused.

  • The interviewer will expect you to take time to prepare your answer.
  • Feel free to ask for the question to be repeated – you need to be certain that you understand the question.
  • Have a pen and paper to note the salient points of the question as a reminder of what needs to be addressed if you personally feel comfortable and confident in this approach.
  • If you think you may be going off track with your answer, ask for the question to be repeated – better safe than sorry.
  • Expect the interviewer to be writing notes as you talk.


Examples of generic competency-based interview questions

Communication and presentation skills

  • Think of a time when you tried to persuade someone else to adopt your point of view. What was the situation? How did you present your views / arguments? What was the result?
  • Tell us about a major change you have experienced in your work environment.
  • Tell us about a time when you failed. Why did you fail? What did you learn from the situation?


Delivering results / results orientation

  • Tell us about a project where you have persisted in spite of obstacles.
  • Tell us about a major achievement and how you went about it.
  • Describe a time when you experienced setbacks in your work.


Interpersonal skills

  • Tell me about a time when you needed to persuade others to commit to a course of action.
  • Describe a situation where you got people to work together.
  • Can you tell me the last time you upset someone? What happened?


Use of initiative

  • Tell me about a time when you undertook a project in an area in which you had little or no experience.
  • Tell me about a time when you initiated a change on your own. How did you present this to your boss?
  • Can you give me an example of a time when you wanted to initiate a project on your own? How did you go about it?


Planning and organising

  • Tell me about a complex project you’ve been responsible for that required significant planning.
  • Tell me about a time when you didn’t meet an objective / deadline.
  • Give me an example of a time when you have had to change your plans.


Analytical thinking

Tell me about a time when you identified a new approach to a problem.

Describe a time when your analytical skills were put to the test.

Tell me about the most complex or difficult information you have had to analyse.


Strategic thinking

  • Tell me of a time when you have influenced strategy.
  • Can you tell me about a time when you implemented a plan that had long-range implications?
  • Can you give me an example of a time when you developed a mission statement?


Building relationships

  • Tell me about a time when you quickly developed a relationship with a new colleague or client.
  • Give me an example of a time when you went about building good working relationships within a team.
  • Describe a situation in which you had to develop and maintain a working relationship with someone with whom you didn’t like
  • to work. How did you do that?



  • Describe a time when you have had to change a process or methodology. How did you go about it?
  • Can you describe a time when you had to influence business decisions in a business unit not directly accountable to you?
  • Describe your recent experience of partnering with senior managers to influence commercial outcomes.


Commercial and business awareness

  • Describe a situation where you championed strategic thinking corporately.
  • Describe financial / commercial decisions that you have made / advised on.
  • Tell us about an occasion when you borrowed ideas from other industries.


Decision making – problem solving and analysis

  • Tell us about a particularly difficult decision you have had to make.
  • Describe a complex problem that you have had to deal with. What approach did you take?
  • Tell us about some of the analytical methods you have used in the past, e.g. cost / benefit analysis. How have these helped you add value?



  • Can you tell me about a time when you have had to resolve conflict between individuals?
  • Describe a time where you have had to use different approaches to deal with different personalities.
  • Can you describe a time when you worked in a team drawn from other departments / areas of your business?
  • Who is the most difficult person you have ever had to manage?


Team leading

  • Describe your approach to leadership style in your last position / s.
  • What is the best team you’ve led and why?
  • Tell me about a time when you led a dysfunctional team.
  • What techniques have you used to encourage others to contribute to the team?

Manufacturing, operations, logistics and supply chain

What your organization makes and does, directly impacts the success or failure of the business.

Within manufacturing, operations and supply-chain, the impact on business performance is direct and measurable.

What you do is therefore direct and measurable.

Interviewers will want to know the ‘what’ and ‘how, and the questions will draw out the application of your knowledge and skills, but the ‘why’ will need to very clearly relate to business performance and measurable results, those Key Performance Indicators that demonstrate business success or failure.

The questions below are somewhat generic given the breadth of this area, but the structure of these examples will very clearly demonstrate how an interviewer will use a competence interview question to drill down and extract the information from you that will indicate the extent of your alignment with their needs.



Tell us about a significant production de-bottlenecking exercise you


Sub Questions

  • Where did the bottleneck occur and what was its impact on production output?
  • How did you conduct your review and analysis?
  • How did you present your findings and what recommendations did you make?
  • How did you manage the disruption to production when making the changes?



Describe an occasion when you experienced quality issues in the

manufacturing process and how you resolved the issues.

Sub Questions

  • What was situation?
  • What was your evaluation of the problem and the resolution you developed?
  • What changes needed to be made and how did you implement those changes?



Tell me about a change you introduced to the stock inventory processes

for manufacturing materials to reduce costs but maintain production availability.

Sub Questions

  • How had you assessed the cost saving potential?
  • What systems and processes had to be developed to facilitate the change?
  • What interaction did you have with suppliers to support the initiative?
  • How did you manage the change within the team?
  • What was the actual performance improvement achieved?



Please tell me about a significant cost reduction initiative you implemented to improve logistics contribution to the business whilst maintaining customer service standards.

Sub Questions

  • What was expenditure on logistics in relation to overall production costs?
  • What external bench-marking had you undertaken and what had it indicated?
  • What changes did you identify to reduce your cost base?
  • How did you ensure that you maintained customer service?
  • How did you manage the implementation?
  • What was the value of your decision making to the business?



Tell us about a time when you had to make a critical decision between continuing production to meet schedules and stopping production to deal with an equipment issue.

Sub Questions

  • What was the situation?
  • How did you analyse the two scenarios around risk and probability?
  • What support did you enlist and why?
  • What as your decision and what were the key factors that influenced your decision?
  • How did you deal with the stakeholders disadvantaged by your actions?



Tell me how you developed a proactive maintenance regime to improve plant performance?

Sub Questions

  • What data did you gather and what did your analysis tell you?
  • Where were the most significant gains to be made and why?
  • What changes did you make?
  • What KPI’s were critical to evaluate performance?
  • What performance benefit did you derive?



Tell us about a time when a change in regulatory requirements had an impact on your manufacturing processing capability?

Sub Questions

  • What was the regulatory change?
  • How did you conduct your impact assessment?
  • What was the nature of the impacts?



Please describe how you sourced and contracted new suppliers for a new product range.

Sub Questions

  • What was the product and process?
  • How did you identify and evaluate potential suppliers?
  • How did you model costs against budget provision?
  • What contractual arrangements did you put in place and what control measures?






Please describe how you managed a production start-up for a new manufacturing plant.

Sub Questions

  • What involvement did you have in the commissioning phase through to acceptance and hand-over?
  • What were the key elements of your start-up plan?
  • What team had you established?
  • What issues did you encounter and how did you deal with them?



Describe to me how you established a distribution network to manage global product logistics.

Sub Questions

  • What were the products and markets for shipping?
  • How did you establish your network and what was its’ structure?
  • What was your logic in deciding what was done in-house and what was contracted-out?
  • What measures and KPI’s did you establish to track and evaluate performance?



Tell us about how you developed a strong health, safety and environmental performance culture within your operations.

Sub Questions

  • What were your views of HSE performance and what issues were you looking to address?
  • What initiatives did you introduce and why?
  • Where did behavioural safety sit in your thinking?
  • How did you lead on the improvements?
  • How did you assess performance and improvements?
  • How did you compare externally?



Tell us about a major cost reduction programme that you managed within your operations as part of your competitive positioning.

Sub Questions

  • What was the challenge for the business?
  • Why was cost seen as a focal point?


How did you lead the review?

  • What were your findings?
  • What actions did you take?
  • How did you manage any wider implications of the cost reduction?



Tell us about an occasion when production capability and output was challenged at a senior level.

Sub Questions

  • What was the nature of the challenge?
  • How did you counter and respond to the challenge?
  • What informed your position?
  • What further review did you make?
  • What were your findings?



Tell me about a planned plant shutdown and how you managed a major overhaul to improve plant reliability and availability.

Sub Questions

  • What stage was the plant at in its life cycle?
  • What issues around plant availability and reliability were you experiencing?
  • What engineering changes were planned?
  • How did this major overhaul fit with production plans and normal shutdown activity?
  • How did you manage the shut-down work and work-plans?



Tel us about a multi-million-dollar critical contract tendering and negotiation exercise that you successfully led.

Sub Questions

  • What was the requirement?
  • How did you identify and evaluate potential suppliers?
  • What was your tendering process?
  • How did you establish the commercial arrangements?
  • What KPI’s did you establish to measure contractual performance?
  • What incentivise arrangements did you build into the contract?



Tell me about how you identified and implemented a new ERP system

Sub Questions

  • What system were you looking to replace?
  • What were the key aspects you required within the new system specification?
  • What additional benefits did you see as available from the new technologies?
  • How did you derive the optimal benefit from the system capability and what impact did these have on the operation?